Friday, May 12, 2017

Yours Grudgingly-2

Continuing on expressing the grudge against stealing of credits, I am presenting the case of Ramanujan Number here.

For basic context to this post, please read my first post on this topic

There is something known as HARDY-RAMANUJAN NUMBER.

GH Hardy was a mathematician and also apparently funded the UK stint of Srinivasa Ramanujan, the Indian Mathematician.

Once when he was visiting Ramanujan, he used a Cab with the number plate- 1729
Hardy mentioned it as a dull number of no significance to Ramanujan. But Ramanujan immediately replied that this number was unique, because it was the smallest number, which could be expressed as the sum of cubes of 2 different positive integers. Which means

1729 = 13 + 123 = 93 + 103

The number was also found in one of Ramanujan's notebooks dated years before the incident, and was noted by Frénicle de Bessy in 1657.

However, the number is known today as HARDY-RAMANUJAN NUMBER

Not only was Hardy's contribution to it a big zero, zilch, but he also had the audacity to put his name before Ramanujan.
Talk about being needy and being hungry for recognition.

If you like this post, tell me. The next post would be about how the west stole the credit away from Tenzing for being the first person atop Mt Everest but instead credits Hillary alone.

Yours Grudgingly-1

Carl Jung once said that only Sigmund Freud could have spent whole of his life to dig out so much dirt from a human mind. Now that everyone from USA to Korea is busy digging (and flinging) dirt on each other, I want my shovel of the dirt, too.
I want to make public my grudge against those western folks that somehow excelled in stealing credit from Indians, in particular, and the eastern world in general, for the inventions or discoveries done by them. There are dozens of articles about this on the internet but some instances really get my goat. And I would recount them here. And no, this is not about that science which was there in our vedas and western scientists apparently stole them.

The first case is that of Higgs-Boson particle or the God particle.

SN Bose, the father of Boson particle (named in his honor), was the person who proposed the theory of these subatomic particles. Now I quote from wikipedia:
Bose adapted [his] lecture into a short article called "Planck's Law and the Hypothesis of Light Quanta" and sent it to Albert Einsteinwith the following letter: [20]
“Respected Sir, I have ventured to send you the accompanying article for your perusal and opinion. I am anxious to know what you think of it. ... If you think the paper worth publication I shall be grateful if you arrange for its publication in Zeitschrift für Physik....”
Einstein agreed with him, translated Bose's paper "Planck's Law and Hypothesis of Light Quanta" into German, and had it published inZeitschrift für Physik under Bose's name, in 1924. [21]

However, for reasons best known to the western world, Bose's interpretation is now called Bose–Einstein statistics.

This result derived by Bose laid the foundation of quantum statistics, and especially the revolutionary new philosophical conception of the indistinguishability of particles, as acknowledged by Einstein and Dirac. [21]
Einstein also did not, at first, realize how radical Bose's departure was, and in his first paper after Bose he was guided, like Bose, by the fact that the new method gave the right answer. But after Einstein's second paper using Bose's method in which Einstein predicted the Bose–Einstein condensate he started to realize just how radical it was, and he compared it to wave/particle duality, saying that some particles didn't behave exactly like particles.
Bose had already submitted his article to the British Journal Philosophical Magazine, which rejected it, before he sent it to Einstein. It is not known why it was rejected. [23]
Einstein adopted the idea and extended it to atoms. This led to the prediction of the existence of phenomena which became known as Bose–Einstein condensate, a dense collection of bosons (which are particles with integer spin, named after Bose), which was demonstrated to exist by experiment in 1995.
Bose's work was evaluated by an expert of the Nobel Committee - Oskar Klein, who did not see his work worthy of a Nobel Prize.
In 1922, Einstein was awarded the 1921  Nobel Prize in Physics "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect". [9] While the general theory of relativity was still considered somewhat controversial, the citation also does not treat the cited work as an  explanation but merely as a  discovery of the law, as the idea of photons was considered outlandish and did not receive universal acceptance until the 1924 derivation of the Planck spectrum  by  S. N. Bose .
Here was Bose, who validated and made Eintein's theory believable, but what can we say, just a poor Indian from a british colony he was... No Nobel...
Later, a team of physicists comprising of R. BroutF. EnglertP. HiggsG. S. GuralnikC. R. Hagen, and T. W. B. Kibble (1964) theorised about a particle which had mass, which was a Boson. This particle was then named Higgs Boson. And Bose's contribution has been so much overshadowed that the wikipedia chooses to write Boson with a small b (boson), unlike the convention for such names, as if boson is like electron.
The Higgs boson is named after Peter Higgs, one of six physicists who, in the 1964 PRL symmetry breaking papers, proposed theHiggs mechanism that suggested the existence of such a particle. On December 10, 2013, two of them, Peter Higgs and François Englert, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for their work and prediction (Englert's co-researcher Robert Brout had died in 2011 and the Nobel Prize is not ordinarily given posthumously). [15] Although Higgs's name has come to be associated with this theory, several researchers between about 1960 and 1972 independently developed different parts of it.
We have so many freeloaders who have been earning Nobel Prizes on the basic work done by Bose. But for Bose, no Nobel Prize, and the Proper noun of 'Boson' has been relegated to 'boson.'
Let me know if you liked this article. If yes, then the second part will come to you with the story of Ramanuja Number.